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The dye appeared to have been used to match new yarn to older age-yellowed yarn.
In addition to the madder dye, Rogers found a gum substance that was possibly gum Arabic, and a common mordant, alum.
No splices of this type were observed in the main part of the Shroud.
Rogers also found alizarin, a dye produced from Madder root.
Rogers also discovered that fibers in the Raes area (the corner from which the carbon dating material had been taken) contained significantly less lignin than the rest of the shroud.
Lignin is a chemical compound found in plant material including flax, the plant from which linen fibers are sourced.
As the cloth aged and naturally yellowed, the variegation became more pronounced, as can be seen in contrast-enhanced photographs."The radiocarbon sample has completely different chemical properties than the main part of the shroud relic," said Mr Rogers, who is a retired chemist from Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, US.Fire damage He says he was originally dubious of untested claims that the 1988 sample was taken from a re-weave.Having been prompted to re-examine the region of the carbon dating sampling, in order to disprove the Benford and Marino's suggestion that the carbon dating had been affected by an "invisible reweaving, Ray Rogers began a new, close examination of actual material from the shroud.In collaboration with Anna Arnoldi of the University of Milan, Rogers wrote a paper arguing that the repair was a very real possibility.
This seemed to be clear evidence of a carefully crafted repair, intended to not be noticeable.