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The student is expected to: (A) identify the characteristics of main sequence stars, including surface temperature, age, relative size, and composition; (B) characterize star formation in stellar nurseries from giant molecular clouds, to protostars, to the development of main sequence stars; (C) evaluate the relationship between mass and fusion on the dying process and properties of stars; (D) differentiate among the end states of stars, including white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes; (E) compare how the mass and gravity of a main sequence star will determine its end state as a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole; (F) relate the use of spectroscopy in obtaining physical data on celestial objects such as temperature, chemical composition, and relative motion; and (G) use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to plot and examine the life cycle of stars from birth to death. The student knows the variety and properties of galaxies.
The student is expected to: (A) describe characteristics of galaxies; (B) recognize the type, structure, and components of our Milky Way galaxy and location of our solar system within it; and (C) compare and contrast the different types of galaxies, including spiral, elliptical, irregular, and dwarf. The student knows the scientific theories of cosmology.
Source: The provisions of this 112.32 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 Tex Reg 5063. Astronomy, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit). Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.
Suggested prerequisite: one unit of high school science. In Astronomy, students conduct laboratory and field investigations, use scientific methods, and make informed decisions using critical thinking and scientific problem solving.
The method chosen should be appropriate to the question being asked. Scientific decision making is a way of answering questions about the natural world.
Local natural environments are to be preferred over artificial or virtual environments.
Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but they may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed; (D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories; (E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting, handling, and maintaining appropriate equipment and technology; (F) collect data individually or collaboratively, make measurements with precision and accuracy, record values using appropriate units, and calculate statistically relevant quantities to describe data, including mean, median, and range; (G) demonstrate the use of course apparatuses, equipment, techniques, and procedures; (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, build models, make inferences, and predict trends from data; (I) perform calculations using dimensional analysis, significant digits, and scientific notation; and (J) communicate valid conclusions using essential vocabulary and multiple modes of expression such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphic organizers, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom.
The student is expected to: (A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student; (B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials; (C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services; (D) evaluate the impact of research and technology on scientific thought, society, and the environment; (E) describe the connection between aquatic science and future careers; and (F) research and describe the history of aquatic science and contributions of scientists. Students know that aquatic environments are the product of Earth systems interactions.
The student is expected to: (A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student; (B) communicate and apply scientific information extracted from various sources such as current events, news reports, published journal articles, and marketing materials; (C) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services; (D) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; and (E) describe the connection between astronomy and future careers. The student recognizes the importance and uses of astronomy in civilization. The student is expected to: (A) observe and record the apparent movement of the Sun and Moon during the day; (B) observe and record the apparent movement of the Moon, planets, and stars in the nighttime sky; and (C) recognize and identify constellations such as Ursa Major, Ursa Minor, Orion, Cassiopeia, and constellations of the zodiac. The student is expected to: (A) observe and record data about lunar phases and use that information to model the Sun, Earth, and Moon system; (B) illustrate the cause of lunar phases by showing positions of the Moon relative to Earth and the Sun for each phase, including new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, third quarter, and waning crescent; (C) identify and differentiate the causes of lunar and solar eclipses, including differentiating between lunar phases and eclipses; and (D) identify the effects of the Moon on tides. The student is expected to: (A) compare and contrast the factors essential to life on Earth such as temperature, water, mass, and gases to conditions on other planets; (B) compare the planets in terms of orbit, size, composition, rotation, atmosphere, natural satellites, and geological activity; (C) relate the role of Newton's law of universal gravitation to the motion of the planets around the Sun and to the motion of natural and artificial satellites around the planets; and (D) explore the origins and significance of small solar system bodies, including asteroids, comets, and Kuiper belt objects. The student knows the role of the Sun as the star in our solar system.
The student is expected to: (A) research and describe the use of astronomy in ancient civilizations such as the Egyptians, Mayans, Aztecs, Europeans, and the native Americans; (B) research and describe the contributions of scientists to our changing understanding of astronomy, including Ptolemy, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Einstein, and Hubble, and the contribution of women astronomers, including Maria Mitchell and Henrietta Swan Leavitt; (C) describe and explain the historical origins of the perceived patterns of constellations and the role of constellations in ancient and modern navigation; and (D) explain the contributions of modern astronomy to today's society, including the identification of potential asteroid/comet impact hazards and the Sun's effects on communication, navigation, and high-tech devices. The student is expected to: (A) identify the approximate mass, size, motion, temperature, structure, and composition of the Sun; (B) distinguish between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission, and identify the source of energy within the Sun as nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium; (C) describe the eleven-year solar cycle and the significance of sunspots; and (D) analyze solar magnetic storm activity, including coronal mass ejections, prominences, flares, and sunspots. The student knows the characteristics and life cycle of stars.
All systems have basic properties that can be described in terms of space, time, energy, and matter.